What are the 7 Sirtuins?
We are made of biomolecules. Biomolecules or biological molecules are the fundamental building blocks of living organisms.
The four major types are carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins. Proteins are considered as the basic units of life. Under protein, we have a class known as Sirtuins.
Each Sirtuins is essential for body functions—each, when studied in-depth, consists of numerous types and divisions.
What are Sirtuins?
Sirtuins were initially included as a family of Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent enzymes.
Got it? Well, simply put, Sirtuins are proteins. A type of protein responsible for how living cells behave, grow and die.
Sirtuins work as an enzyme at the cellular level, and it has also been involved in regulating aging and life span in many organisms.
The 7 types of Sirtuins
Sirtuins are divided into various classes and subclasses found in different species. However, in the more complex species – namely the mammals, the Sirtuins are of 7 types. Each of these is coded by other genes, and each is located in different parts of the cells.
Here are the names and location of each type:
Both SIRT 1 and SIRT 2 are found in the Nucleus and cytoplasm. While SIRT3, SIRT 4 and SIRT 5 are found in the Mitochondria, and SIRT 6 and SIRT 7 are located in the Nucleus.
What does each Sirtuin do?
These seven Sirtuins each work differently in the body.
SIRT 1 gene helps in the metabolism of glucose and fatty acids, and it also protects the neurons and helps in cell survival. Other functions include differentiation, Insulin secretion, and inflammation.
SIRT 2 gene takes part in the cell cycle and produces energy. This enzyme also helps suppress tumor cells from forming.
SIRT 3 carries out the antioxidant activity at the cellular level. Thermogenesis also occurs with the help of this Sirtuin.
SIRT 4 helps in insulin secretion. It also works in the TCA cycle and fatty acid oxidation.
SIRT 5 helps detoxify ammonia, which works in the urea cycle. It also helps in cellular respiration.
This SIRT 6 protein is found in the Nucleus, where it stops DNA from degrading rapidly and helps repair the damaged DNA. It also takes part in the Telomeres and Telomeric functions.
This last type of Sirtuins is active during RNA transcription and helps provide genome stability.
How can I boost Sirtuin?
Sirtuins are found in most human body cells, and they work by regulating metabolism. Therefore, any activity related to metabolism will directly affect Sirtuin activity.
Here are some ways to boost your Sirtuin levels:
One of the simplest ways is to drink more water.
Try to drink plenty of water, which will ensure that your body is well hydrated and healthy. This, in turn, will increase Sirtuin production.
Increase NAD+ levels.
The activity of Sirtuins is dependent on Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). Hence, an increase in NAD+/ NADH ratio will increase sirtuin activity.
Sirtfood diet, a diet consisting of plant-based food. These foods are known as Sirtuin activators.
Some activator foods are cocoa, Coffee, Dates, Green tea, Kale, Parsley, Red wine, Soy products, and Walnuts.
Resveratrol and Pterostilbene are supplements that directly active Sirtuin at some level.
How do I raise my NAD levels?
When you have a higher level of NAD+, you are healthier and have more vitality. But with age, your NAD+ levels begin to decline.
Here are some simple ways which can help increase your NAD+ levels:
Regular exercise increases the NAD+ proteins in your body.
With daily workouts, your body responds by producing more NAD+. This way, you can slow your aging process.
Limiting Exposure to Sun
Too much time under the sun damages your cells. In turn, your body uses up your NAD+ faster to repair the damage. Limit your exposure to the sun. You can prevent premature depletion of NAD+.
Change your diet.
Foods and drinks like Avocado, Salmon, Milk, Yeast, and Kombucha raise NAD+ levels.
Also, drinking alcohol has been shown to reduce NAD+ levels. You are better off altogether avoiding alcohol in your diet.
Supplements of Nicotinamide Ribose and Vitamin B artificially increase your NAD+ levels. The most popular drugs to raise NAS+ levels are TruNiagean, RiboGEN and Resveratrol.
Is Vitamin B3 the same as NAD+?
Vitamin B3 is a dietary supplement. It encompasses nicotinamide, nicotinic acid, and nicotinamide ribose. It is also known as the precursor of NAD+. This means that the NAD+ is derived from Vitamin B3.
Also, Vitamins B3 or Niacin is the oxidized form of nicotine. While, NAD+ are amides of Niacin.
The end function of both Vitamin B3 and NAD+ is the same. That is to help speed metabolism, maintain balance, and regulate growth, support memory, mood, and vitality.
However, mammals like humans are heavily reliant on the dietary supply of Vitamin B3, which means that our body cannot produce its Vitamins.
Whereas without Vitamin B3, our body cannot make its own NAD+. In other words, the functional intracellular NAD+ concentration depends on the bioavailability of Vitamin B3. This is one of the reasons why Vitamin B3 supplements are used to boost NAD+ levels.
Mitochondrial Sirtuins (SRIT3-5) have been the research focus for many years. However, many aspects of Sirtuin biology remain unknown.
This aspect of the biological study is drawing significant attention for aging control. The connection between NAD+ and Sirtuins adds complexity to their coordination in metabolic longevity. However, many researchers have shown that Sirtuin plays a significant role in aging.
It is possible that calorie restrictions could lead to a longer life. It activates these proteins and tells the body that it is not starving. This means our bodies do not need to store calories.
If we find out more about these proteins, we may design drugs. Drugs that can consequently improve our overall health. Our vitality, memory, and growth might improve with advancement in the study. One day maybe we humans might live a longer, healthier life.